Laboratory scale sedimentological studies are performed on clastic and carbonate aquifers. These can include but are not limited to petrographic (thin section) descriptions, microfacies and depositional analysis, pore type geometry descriptions, diagenetic overprint assessments and paragenetic sequence classifications.
Sedimentological services can be carried out on sample material obtained from cores, plugs, sidewall cores and cuttings. Facies types (grain components, porosity and cement types) are described qualitatively or quantitatively.
GGE also provides more specific analytical services including :
Special microscopy, mineralogical and isotope analyses can be also carried out to help to better resolve complex reservoir settings, depositional aspects and multi-phased diagenetic alterations and overprints (e.g. dolomite characterization and brine mineralization). Studies are always delivered in a well structured framework allowing quick overview for further decision taking as well as detailed references for planning further work , integration and simulation.
Resolving relevant facets of reservoir stratigraphy is essential to appreciate its overall geological embedment and architecture. This leads to understanding which factors control significant lateral and vertical variability which in turn is key to build meaningful fluid flow and productivity simulations.
Relevant elements that embrace outcrop analogues, seismostratigraphic interpretation (facies analysis), core observations, any evidence from cuttings, thin-sections and logs and other sources. All such information is integrated into coherent quantitative models that allow to considerably reduce risks and uncertainties associated with origin, geometry, orientation and extent and variability of the rock unit in question.
GGE provides high resolution biostratigraphic analysis, an essential tool to resolve critical stratigraphic uncertainties (formation boundaries, stratigraphic correlation). Analytical tools embrace among other micropaleontology of benthic and planktonic foraminifera (both on thin-sections and on washed samples), ostracods, conodonts and radiolarian as well as palynology and cover Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
Understanding the interplay and the dependencies water charge expulsion, migration timing from surface and trap formation and concluding on risks and uncertainties on the potential of finding fresh water accumulations are basin modelling key objectives.
GGE recommends 1D/2D basin modelling work where it can materially contribute to mitigate exploration risk, be it on extending proven prospective fairways beyond known geographical limits or be it on developing new plays.
At more a regional scale, 3D modelling applying state-of-the-art software conducted by experienced experts may be the approach of choice if economically supported.